Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Questions: 1.Provide an Opinion regarding which antenna types will become the dominant players in the future of medium- and long-distance wireless links. 2.Compare and Contrast the multiplexing techniques CDMA and FDMA in the area of wireless networking? 3.A local engineering group ask you to present your finding of the most recent advanced wireless technologies. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. Answers: 1.Different antenna, such as yagi, horn, and cellular antennas, etc. has different merits. Research these technologies in details and pay specific attention to how they are used as well their strengths and weakness. Provide an opinion regarding which antenna types will become the dominant players in the future of medium- and long-distance wireless links. Antennas can be defined as the main segments of any electrical circuit as they give interconnecting joins amongst transmitter as well as free space or among the free space and recipient. The various types of antennas are discussed as following: Yagi Antennas - Yagi antennas are economical as well as viable. It can be built with at least one reflector components and at least one component. Yagi reception could be made by utilizing one reflector, a determined collapsed dipole dynamic component, and the mounted horizontal polarization in the forward methodology. A single driven component i.e dipole, proliferates RF vitality; components that are placed instantly before and behind the determined component re-transmit RF energy in as well as out of phase by upgrading and impeding the flag, individually. The components are known as parasitic components; the component behind the determined component is known as the reflector, while the components before the determined component are called executives. These antennas have beam widths of 30 to 80 degrees and also can give well in abundance of 10 dBi inactive gain. This is powerful antenna that points in one direction. But in case, we need signal in other direction, we can use more yag i antennas. (Agarwal, T., 2015). Horn Antennas - These antennas falls in microwave category. These antennas are appropriate for frequencies in which waveguides are the standard support strategy, as they comprise of a waveguide whose walls are flared outside to frame a structure of megaphone. These antennas are widely utilized at microwave frequencies when there is moderate requirement of power. It is moderately used. The best examples are delivered by making the horn length huge as compared with the gap width, yet this must be picked as an exchange with the general volume possessed. A typical utilization of horn antenna is as the sustain component for explanatory dish reception tool in satellite frameworks. (Ingale, C. Ingale, T., 2008). Cellular Antennas - Cellular antennas could be utilized as a part of conjunction with a controlled flag sponsor, like inline amplifier or repeater or associated specifically to the wireless device with a mobile phone connector link or coax connector. The reception of cell signal is adversely influenced by many elements that includes blocks like structures, vehicles, slopes or trees and also separate from the phone tower. Utilizing a mobile phone radio wire can decrease issues with dropped calls and blurs the signal while enhancing range of service, voice quality and access. Putting a radio wire on the rooftop keeps the dividers and siding from constricting phone signal and limits the impact of different hindrances in cell tower. Eg: In a vehicle, up to 90% of the phone signal is hindered by the vehicle edge and its glass. A mobile phone receiving wire mounted on the external surface of the vehicle extraordinarily expands the phone signal. (WPSantennas cellular reception solutions, 20 17). 2.CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access transmits over the whole recurrence go accessible. It doesn't allot a particular recurrence to every client on the communication network. This technique, called multiplexing. (Christensson, P., 2006). CDMA utilizes analog to digital transformation (ADC) by combining with its spread spectrum. It digitize its audio input in binary components. The recurrence of the transmitted signal varies so it can be caught just by a collector whose recurrence reaction is modified with a similar code, so it takes after precisely alongside the transmitter recurrence. There possibilities are trillion of frequency sequencing that upgrades security and makes cloning troublesome. The CDMA channel is ostensibly 1.23 MHz wide. CDMA systems utilize a plan is also known as delicate handoff, which limits signal separation as a handset goes starting with one cell then onto the next. Combination of advanced and spread-range modes underpins various number of signs per unit data transfer capacity as analog modes. CDMA is good with other cell innovations; this takes into consideration across the nation roaming. (Rouse, M., 2015). FDMA - FDMA partitions the mutual medium transfer speed into singular channels. The modulated subcarriers transmit each sub channel. For example - cable network system. It uses single coax cable that communicate many channels of video or audio programming to homes. The persuade link has a valuable data transfer capacity from around 4 MHz to 1 GHz. This data transfer capacity is divided into 6-MHz wide channels. This method is utilized as a part of fiber optic communication frameworks. A fiber optic link has huge transmission capacity that can be subdivided to give FDMA. Unique aviation telemetry frameworks utilized a FDMA framework to oblige numerous sensor information on a solitary radio station. (Frenzel, L., 2013). 3.The accepting and transmitting reception antenna with the mediating medium play out the capacity of the transmission line in wire communication framework. Communication in long distance in the high recurrence area depends on the impression of the radio waves from the ionosphere. The aftereffect of this can be transmission or its reception from a few to numerous degree over the horizon that is contingent upon the distance amongst stations and stature of the reflecting layer. At the point when a reception tool emanates more emphatically in some direction, it is said to have directivity. The more the radiation is gathered in a specific heading, the more noteworthy will be the field quality created toward that path for given measure of aggregate power emanated. Waves that are transmitted from the radio wire at angle that is made above the horizontal point. This angle is then reflected by the earth and consolidate with, or meddle with the immediate waves that are emanated at points over the horizontal. The resultant vertical radiation design is controlled by the impedance which relies on the introduction of radio wire as for earth, the stature of the antenna, the character of ground and course properties of real antenna. (High frequence antennas., n.d). Drawbacks The main drawbacks of antennas are its reliability and interference in its signal. It is susceptible in broadcasting over long distances. In these devices, the occurrence of co-channel is more. (Naval postgraduate school, 2003). References Agarwal, T. (2015). Heres a Quick Way to Know about Different Types of Antennas. Retrieved from - https://www.elprocus.com/different-types-of-antennas-with-properties-and-thier-working/ Cell Phone Antennas. WPSantennas cellular reception solutions (2017). Retrieved from - https://www.wpsantennas.com/cell-phone-antennas.aspx Christensson, P. (2006). CDMA Definition. Retrieved from - https://techterms.com. Frenzel, L. (2013). Fundamentals of Communications Access Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA, AND SDMA. Retrieved from - https://www.electronicdesign.com/communications/fundamentals-communications-access-technologies-fdma-tdma-cdma-ofdma-and-sdma#%E2%80%9DFCMA%E2%80%9D HF and Lower Frequency Radiation - Introduction. Naval postgraduate school (2003). Retrieved from - https://www.met.nps.edu/~psguest/EMEO_online/module3/module_3_1.html High frequence antennas. Retrieved from - https://collinsradio.org/archives/ssb_fundamentals/Fundamentals_of_Single_Side_Band_Chap_09.pdf Ingale, C. Ingale, T. (2008). Study of Different Types of Microwave Antenna and Its Applications. International Journal of Computer Technology and Electronics Engineering (IJCTEE) Volume 3, Special Issue, March-April 2013. Retrieved from - https://www.ijctee.org/NSPIRE2013/IJCTEE_0313_Special_Issue_25.pdf Rouse, M. (2015). CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access). Retrieved from - https://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/definition/CDMA
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Analyse how Frayn presents relationships between adults and children in Spies Essay Example Analyse how Frayn presents relationships between adults and children in Spies Essay Analyse how Frayn presents relationships between adults and children in Spies Essay Known, he is known to be in the RAF but his exact whereabouts are unknown to the reader. Stephen catches Mrs. Hayward in the tunnel which commences the gradual uncovering of her secret. When Mr. Hayward is looking for the thermos flask, he at once suspects Keith took it and gives him an ultimatum of either giving back the thermos flask or be given beatings from him. Stephen rushes towards the tunnel and inadvertently bumps into Mrs. Hayward. She responds angrily to Stephen- why are you doing this (pg. 147), but he keeps on repeating the word Thermos. The communication gulf is epitomised through this encounter as Stephen struggles to make out a sentence but still makes Mrs. Hayward understand him. Stephen will not disobey Keith as he is the true comrade and would rather die than go against his chiefs wishes. His attitude relates back to the oath he was forced to say by Keith. As readers, we can see the absurdity of a statement such as Greens the right colour for a bicycle, just as its wrong one for a belt or a bus (pg.17).Clearly, what makes something right or wrong here is simply whether Keith or Stephen do it. We recognise and empathise with the childhood insecurity in Stephen that enables Keith to impose his own Rightness. Paradoxically, he is reluctant to do what Mrs. Hayward and Uncle Peter ask of him. This again expressively highlights the subservience of Stephen and indicates he only follows those who dominate him physically and intellectually (Keith).No adult will dominate a young innocent boy like Stephen. Furthermore, we can see the gradual metamorphosis of Stephen to an adult at the ending of the novel when Stephen decides to take rations to the man (Uncle Peter) living in the barns under the corrugated iron. His behaviour contrasts with the banging on the iron with sticks which we see earlier in the book. Stephen shows his ever-growing manhood as even though the man is sick and hidden and could not compel Stephen physically, Stephen is incapable of ignoring his innate authority as an adult. It also emphasises the fact that Spies is a bildungsroman as it shows the development in maturity of the protagonist Stephen.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Hans Christian Andersen Biography Hans Christian Andersen was a famous Danish writer, known for his fairy tales, as well as other works. Birth and Education Hans Christian Andersen was born in the slums of Odense. His father was a cobbler (shoemaker) and his mother worked as a washerwoman. His mother was also uneducated and superstitious. Andersen received very little education, but his fascination with fairy tales inspired him to compose his own stories and arrange puppet shows, on a theater his father had taught him to build and manage. Even with his imagination, and the stories his father told him, Andersen did not have a happy childhood. Hans Christian Andersen Death: Andersen died in his home in Rolighed on August 4, 1875. Hans Christian Andersen Career: His father died when Andersen was 11 (in 1816). Andersen was forced to go to work, first as an apprentice to a weaver and tailor and then in a tobacco factory. At the age of 14, he moved to Copenhagen to try a career as a singer, dancer and actor. Even with the support of benefactors, the next three years were difficult. He sang in the boys choir until his voice changed, but he made very little money. He also tried the ballet, but his awkwardness made such a career impossible. Finally, when he was 17, Chancellor Jonas Collin discovered Andersen. Collin was a director at the Royal Theater. After hearing the Andersen read a play, Collin realized that he had talent. Collin procured money from the king for Andersens education, first sending him to a terrible, taunting teacher, then arranging a private tutor. In 1828, Andersen passed the entrance examinations to the university in Copenhagen. His writings were first published in 1829. And, in 1833, he received grant money for travel, which he used to visit Germany, France, Switzerland, and Italy. During his journey, he met Victor Hugo, Heinrich Heine, Balzac, and Alexandre Dumas. In 1835, Andersen published Fairy Tales for Children, which contained four short stories. He eventually wrote 168 fairy tales. Among Andersens best known fairy tales are Emperors New Clothes, Little Ugly Duckling, The Tinderbox, Little Claus and Big Claus, Princess and the Pea, The Snow Queen, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Story of a Mother and The Swineherd.In 1847, Andersen met Charles Dickens. In 1853, he dedicated A Poets Day Dreams to Dickens. Andersons work influenced Dickens, along with other writers like William Thackeray and Oscar Wilde.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Major Trading Partners, Demographics, and System of Governance between the US and Canada - Annotated Bibliography Example By the end of 2009, the US government had exported about $1.6 trillion worth of goods and services to ten major trading partners of the world. The main exports from the US are capital goods which account for over 49% of the total exports. Industrial supplies account for about 26% while consumer goods account for 15% of the exports. Agricultural products like cereals account for about 9% of the total exports. The major trading nations that purchase goods and services from the US are, in descending order; Canada, Mexico, China and Japan.Ã Surprisingly, the US has its greatest importer of goods in its closest neighbor, Canada. Apart from Canada, other world top trading partners of the US are China, Mexico, Japan, Germany, UK, South Korea, France, Taiwan, Netherlands, Brazil, Italy, Singapore, Malaysia, and Ireland. Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are the top suppliers of imports to the US. CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s top three trading partners cut across many continents. In North America, US is CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s main partner while in Asia and the Far East, China is the major trading partner of Canada. Mexico is the major trading partner of Canada from the South American region. The US is CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s major trading partner. It affects Canada through trade, tourism, technology, history, and culture. There are distinguishing factors that have made the US stand out as being the lead actor in CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s trade operations. These factors are physical, economic, political and social. From 2005 to 2010, the US has remained as the best trading partner with Canada in terms of exporting goods and services. The United Kingdom and Japan complete the number 2 and number 3 slots. For example, in 20005, the export value of the US in Canada was over 368,000 million dollars. These standards have been maintained over the years. The US also remains as the greatest importer of goods of Canadian origin.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Appropriate procedures for terminating a teacher, suspending or expelling a student, and administering corporal punishment - Essay Example For that reason, it is very important that one understands the appropriate procedures in dealing people's concerns within an educational institution. This may as well stresses ones rights towards just and fair judgment in every situation. A certain disciplinary procedure is used in dealing with teachers cases to ensure that should a particular teacher is alleged for any form of misconduct, he may receive fair and consistent judgment. The current law allows termination of teaching contract due to immorality or inefficiency. It also emphasizes that a certain due-process must be complied in terminating teachers (Ohio Legislative Service Commission, 1997). First and foremost, the teacher's employment record should be considered. Hence preliminary investigation should be done. The booklet "Pastoral Care in Schools: Child Protection, which provides supplementary advices and invokes disciplinary procedures when necessary, should be consulted whenever the issues are related to child protection (deni.gov, 2008). Once investigation is completed, the Disciplinary Authority will decide on the appropriate action. Should it be decided that the case invokes formal procedure; the Disciplinary Authority has to ask for advice from the Employing Authority.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Immigrant Women rights and problems in Canada - Essay Example For instance, Middle East and Caribbean regions reports indicate a vastly different lifestyle for women as compared to that of the Canadian women. Additionally, the government in Canada has been on the forefront in the recognition, valuation, expression and enactment of women rights in all sectors of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Canada is known as a country with few original residents than the immigrants, a factor that makes the immigrant women to acquire egalitarianism as that of original citizens. More over, protection of women rights in regard to job market, law, family violence and social has been a forefront objective in the country since the realization of women significance in a cosmopolitan society. Nevertheless, immigrant women in Canada do face some immense problems and challenges that still need suitable measures that would address them. Therefore, Life of women in Canada has experienced drastic shifts in the recent years (Magocsi, 1999). The discussion in this paper is o bjected towards the establishment of Immigrant women rights and problems in Canada. An overview of how women rights as well as gender egalitarianism are valued in Canada will also be provided. It is also found ample to establish the several areas in which women rights have been recognized and enacted in the country, and some problems and challenges facing the arena. The effectiveness of application of these rights is also evaluated to enhance comprehensiveness in understanding of human rights. Human rights value and recognition in Canada Human rights are highly valued in Canada than any other nation in the world. Every rights aspect has been well taken care of to enhance the satisfaction of her citizens despite their multicultural backgrounds. The universal Human rights affirmation by the government and all other entities has played a pivotal role in the building of an extraordinary framework for dealing with human issues. More so, enactment of standards and human rights objectives is made easy, which improves the aspiration of the available institutions, legislation as well as individuals. Women in living and working in the Canadian society are given authority to maintain and protect a position that is respectful in their realms. The signing and establishment of women rights by the Canadian government was meant to facilitate an excellent livelihood for the women in the country (Magocsi, 1999). On the hand, several other parts of the world have been so reluctant in the recognition of human rights and freedom. Torture, intimidation and violence have become the order of the day in some societies in the world. However, this has acquired a distinct take in the Canadian society for it has become a world leader in endorsing and safeguarding women's rights in addition to gender egalitarianism. Working and talking is allowed in all sectors. Sitting and working besides guys in offices and working with them is not a big deal in Canada. It is also evident that women who have immigrated to Canada have also been given full rights due to the emphasis that the
Friday, November 15, 2019
Movie Analysis Of Leadership Development You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You must do the thing you think you cannot do. -Eleanor Roosevelt The above stated lines speak up the spirit of Norma Rae and the power of a leader. The quotation highlights the two main points shown in the film; the strength and courage of a woman and the idea of justice and equal rights for all. The film shows how an oppressed, young American lady who in initial stage did not had courage to fight against intolerable environment, converts into a charismatic leader and helps up bringing the whole textile labour society. The Film: The film Norma Raes release came in an era when labour unions were falling out of favour with the American public and politicians appeared eager to criticize organized labour for harming American competitiveness in the global marketplace. Norma Rae (played by actress Sally Field) focuses on the experiences of an individual who lived in Roanoke Rapids, NC and played a leadership role in the struggle to win union representation from the J.P. Stevens Company. Her real name was Crystal Lee. Crystal Lee had grown up in a family of mill workers, laboured in a variety of jobs, including textiles, and then, rather suddenly, discovered an interest in unions when she heard the speech of an organizer who had come to Roanoke Rapids. She successfully demonstrated that power is not based on title or status; it comes by connecting with people and standing up for what you believe in (Goleman et al, 2002). The movie clearly sends out the message that strong will power, hard work and determination can surely make impossible possible. It substantiates the bonding between a leader and his follower, the importance of such a symbiotic relationship and how the follower can become a leader too by synergizing bonds. It is a live commentary on the inherent leadership potential lying latent in everyone of us and how the environmental factors, situations and a suitable guidance can convert us into a charismatic leader. The movie begins with the loud noise of machines in the mill doing its job and still shots from Ms. Raes life from being an infant to a sad woman, one amongst the 800 mill-workers; a cog in the cotton mill machinery who is not enjoying life, but is only struggling with it to survive. Workers are portrayed as being machines themselves making machines in unceasing eight hour shifts and trying to come to terms with this machine age .Norma Raes mother facing the problem of temporary deafness due to the unbearable noise produced by the machines in the mill. These pathetic working environmental conditions with short and few breaks in-between the working hours, no windows, no proper working conditions and poor management played a major role in transforming Norma Rae into a leader. To begin with, she is a young, hard working, energetic lady with no decided goals. She is a rebel without a cause, unharnessed youth of the age who fearlessly confronts the management. The bosses first tried to hold her by offering a rise in salary by 1$/hr and offering a higher position than others. At first, she plays into their hands, she accepted the offer, but when she was cut off from her people and saw an attitude change in them then she realizes a very important lesson of life that to find strength, one must be with and from the people. Then comes into play Reuben Warshofsky (played by Ron Leibman), an urban union leader who knows the labour laws and the legal system and just needs an insider to materialize his goals from within, who could support him in serving the good cause of publicising the labour union and telling the benefits of it. With Ruebens coordination and learning, Norma slowly transforms into a strong and confident leader. This symbiotic conventional mentor-protÃ ©gÃ ©e bond develops into an affective partnership where Norma and Reuben spread awareness and overcome personal and work related obstacles together. Reubens authority, knowledge and wittiness to handle situations helped making a path and strategy to confront the problems. Norma Rae had been marketed to the American public as a story about a female Rocky and as a film that exuded feminist spirit while not overtly preaching feminism. Leadership Styles: There are various leadership styles reflected by various characters in the film Norma Rae, following theories and styles help us explain them: Leaderships gender perspective Transformational Leadership Authoritarian and Participative leadership Style Contingency Theory and Situational leadership Vision Development Conflicts Social Identity Theory Leaderships gender perspective: Because I am a woman, I must make unusual efforts to succeed. If I fail, no one will say, She doesnt have what it takes. They will say, Women dont have what it takes. (Clare Boothe Luce) There is a cultural ideal in most societies that generally men are the leaders. This ideal persists despite the fact that women in many nations have participated in governing the whole nation operating at the topmost positions like Prime Minister and President (Table 1). There still seems to be, in some circles, a belief in some societies that women do not belong in the leadership, and are especially ill-perceived in leadership positions. There still appears to be a commonly held belief that, while women are tolerated in the ranks, many men still believe that leadership in their domain alone. The male centred society has usually associated women with certain specific roles; such taking care of household tasks, looking after children etc. The film Norma Rae tries to evolve such typical and orthodox mindset. The above said sentences can easily be collected from a scene where Normas husband shows anger on her when she used to come late and tries to let her realize her duties towards hou sehold works like washing clothes, cooking food, and looking after kids. But Norma made him realize that she has been working for a great cause and motive and he should understand it. Norma proves it to the whole society that women can not only look after the house and children but also can work, earn, lead and change the system. She also proves that women who are not associated with leadership can be taught and developed to be good leaders. It is truly and beautifully said that: Women have certain characteristics that give them an edge over men in being leaders, like- empathy, and a caring attitude (Heller, 1982). Transformational Leadership: Transformational leadership is a leadership approach that is defined as leadership that creates valuable and positive change in the followers. A transformational leader focuses on transforming others to help each other, to look out for each other, to be encouraging and harmonious, and to look out for the organization as a whole. In this leadership, the leader enhances the motivation, morale and performance of his follower group (source: www.wikepedia.org). This is a leadership style exhibited primarily by Rueben, Norma gradually adopts this style. Transformational Leadership occurs when the leader take a visionary position and inspires others to follow. The essence of transformational leadership lies making the followers understand the goals and inspire them to achieve them (Bass et al, 1994). Like many other leaders Norma used the help of her mentor Rueben to understand various leadership traits. To understand the complexity of the environment Rueben who is the mentor here shares all his knowledge and expertise with his protÃ ©gÃ © Norma, to become a better leader. Norma evolves as a leader with the help of her mentor, Rueben. She learnt about how she can help people to fight the inequality and how to make them stand against the prevailing evils in the work environment. She understands the fact that: To lead, one must follow. -Lao Tzu Reuben has better Leadership skills than Norma, but his profession and demands matched while that of Norma didnt. Ruebens strength lies in the fact that he inspires people to come forward and realise their potential. He follows the principle of Leadership Development. Reuben better knows how to use the processes of leadership development, i.e., assessment, challenge and support (Howell et al, 2006). Rueben has a better understanding than Norma about of the psychology of his followers to inspirationally motivate them and intellectually stimulate them (Pierce et al, 2008). He makes Norma and the workers understand the fact that a union is essential for them and thus sets the ball rolling. Norma takes the lead and spreads awareness amongst the workers. Normas leadership style is quite inspired by Rueben and she also grows up into a transformational leader. Norma learned the lesson from Rueben: If you are not the lead dog scenery never changes (Source: LeadershipAdvanceOnline) Authoritarian and Participative leadership style: Authoritarian: This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. (Source: www.nwlink.com) Norma is shown as an energetic and hard working character in this film, thus authoritarian characteristic, though in a very small content, is exhibited in her natural characteristics. This style is used when Norma tells her peers working for the formation of the labour society about what they want to be done and how she wants it to be accomplished, without getting the advice from them. This leadership style can even be seen the scene when Norma shouts on one of her peer for not getting the work done on time and she had to spend extra effort on augments than to concentrate on other core tasks like planning and management. This leadership style is primarily exhibited by management of O.P Henley textile mill; the management is too much authoritarian and does not want any employee to raise voice against the odds in the mill. The management misuses its authority to restrict union activities been performed by Norma in the work place. The management is least bothered about the employee care , they just want the work to be done without giving any concerns to the voice, needs and requirements of employees. The management of O.P Henley textile mill seems to deny the truth: The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority. -Kenneth Blanchard Participative (Democratic): This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it) (Source: http://www.nwlink.com) This leadership style is very much exhibited in the Norma Rae character of the film; in fact the core of the film revolves round this leadership quality. Norma Rae participates in decision making with Rueben. Planning, controlling, pursuing, managing, organizing, and all other tasks are performed by her in a participative manner, either with the peer members of the union supporting group, peer workers or Rueben. An example of participative leadership of Norma could be seen in a scene in which she and the fellow employees wear a large union button in the work setting to speak their fellow workers about joining a union which was protected under the new rules. Norma used to involve and convince people working in the mill to get involved in union formation; she generally used to take inputs from peer workers and Rueben on how to manage tasks. Situational Leadership: Another leadership concept clearly visible from the film Norma Rae is Situational Leadership or the Contingency Theory of Leadership. As per this concept the leadership style is contingent to situations and circumstances (Howell et al, 2006). It is said to be the best style of leadership. The style to be used depends on the readiness level of the people the leader is trying to influence (Pierce et al, 2008). Norma Rae realized the intolerable situation of the textile mill workers were working in, that propelled her to change of the situation and lead the labour society to form a union for their own and for the sake of whole textile labour society. Situational leadership is clearly demonstrated by Norma Rae in the scene when after getting fired from her job in the mill, she mounted a table in her work room and held up a sheet of cardboard with the word UNION marked on it in large letters. She turned around slowly, demonstrating her bold message to the assorted hemmers, terry cutters and packers in the room. As a result of this action, the workers who had been facing the unbearable situations since long, without revolting, were stunned and realized that the time has come to be united and to stand against the management for the common objective of equality and justice, Norma clearly demonstrated her leadership in the odd situation, this scene though silent left a big impact and played a major role in union formation in American textile industry. By demonstrating situational leadership at various instances Norma Rae proved the following definition of leadership: Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it Dwight Eisenhower Vision Development: A vision is a guiding image of what success looks like. It answers the question what do you wish to become. (Source www.thepracticeofleadership.net) Norma Rae is a southern textile worker employed in a factory with intolerable working conditions. She was born and brought up in a family of workers who were facing these conditions since long. In the opening scene of the movie, the viewer is immediately introduced to what it might really be like working all day in a textile factory. The operation of the machinery is deafening. At the end of the scene, we discover that is exactly the case as Norma Rae realizes her own mother cannot hear. Norma from her past had a vision of what is prevalent in the environment and needs to be removed, but since she was used to it and was unaware of her latent leadership abilities she was unable to pursue that vision. Rueben made her realize her leadership capabilities and supported her vision to resolve the issues which she and the society was facing since long. To use vision as a strategy, she needed to define three elements-the plan, current state and desired state (Refer appendix 2). It means defin ing where she was now, where she wanted to be in the future and how she was going to get there This concern about the situation gave her the gumption to be the key associate to a visiting labour union organizer. They knew the present situation, they developed a plan and structure to bring as many people together with them as possible. Together, they undertook the difficult, and possibly dangerous, struggle to unionize her factory) and saved the future of many workers working in textile industry. It was their vision which led them to succeed and let them attain their objectives. Normas success which was lead by her vision justifies the following quote: The very essence of leadership is that you have to have a vision. Its got to be a vision you articulate clearly and forcefully on every occasion. You cant blow an uncertain trumpet. -Theodore Hesburgh Conflicts: Dont be afraid of opposition. Remember, a kite rises against; not with; the wind. Hamilton Wright Mabie This is the main idea which Norma Rae seems to be following in the film. Any leader cannot grow without facing conflicts or without fighting the situations against him/her. In the film Norma Rae, Norma also comes across various conflicts while trying to achieve her goal. The first conflict is at her workplace i.e. against the management of O.P. Henley Textile Mill, the mill management never wanted Norma to form a union, and the management was against her since the beginning of union chapter. Norma had to face many conflicts from the management, some examples of it are, the management warned her at various moments that she might lose her job if she continues to raise voice for union in the work place, she was asked why she used workplace telephone in office hours?, she was asked to remove the unions button, she was warned while favouring the Unions notice on the notice board at work place, But Norma continued with her union objectives and kept on publicising the union, its cause and i ts functions to her peers, finally the management called the police chief to take her away to book her on disorderly conduct charges. Norma Rae did not leave calmly. She kicked, twisted, and screamed, and she had to be stuffed into the squad car and kept behind the bars for a night. At her home, being a lady she was expected to cook food, wash clothes, look after the kids, and perform all other household activities, but since she was very much involved in the union activities she could not take out time for all these works, there was a conflict between her and her husband regarding the same on which she reacted aggressively showing her discontent that while she kept busy in work it was the responsibility of him to take care of such tasks. All these conflicts made her stronger to fight for her cause. Social Identity Theory: Social identity theory: leader is picked by followers or chosen to be supported by followers because s/he is most like them. (Source- Slides) Norma Rae is a co-worker of the labours in the O.P Henley textile mills, this is an additional benefit which she enjoys to become a leader of them and for them, as stated in the social identity theory. There is a peer trust relationship between Norma and her followers, followers know that Norma is well aware of the situations and conditions prevalent in the working condition as she is one of them. This trust, respect and belief can be seen when she held up a sheet of cardboard with the word UNION marked on it in large letters, all her followers supported her and stopped working, they knew that what she was doing is for them and for their well being. In an earlier scene we see that Norma was offered a better designation and salary as that of peers, but when she realised the value of social identity she left the designation. Norma knew that without winning the confidence of her peers and without being one of them she would not be able to succeed to reach her destination. She knew the v alue of social identity. Conclusion Norma Rae though a great social transformer, does not depict the characteristics of a very great leader with a big following. In fact, Norma didnt even have any followers as seen from a conventional view. Yet, she achieved and benefited many. She transformed the way labours were treated in the society, depicting a very interesting, unique and a subtle style of leadership. Norma Rae proved that passion and not position is where courage of a great leader to fulfil his vision, comes from. She along with Reuben, achieved her goal of establishing a union, yet facilitated the workers to believe that it was their effort and achievement. The following lines best describe the leadership style of Norma Rae: Go to the people. Learn from them. Live with them. Start with what they know. Build with what they have. The best of leaders when the job is done, when the task is accomplished, the people will say we have done it ourselves. -Lao Tzu Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Vision as a Strategy